RTK Base - Detailed Overview

RTK Base - Detailed Overview

What is the RTK Base?

  • RTK, or Real-Time Kinematicis a method that boosts the precision of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) signals like GPS, Glonass, Galileo, and BeiDou. The main purpose of the base station is to remain fixed in one location and send correction data to a mobile receiver, like the Yarbo device, ensuring more accurate and real-time positioning.

Components of Yarbo's RTK Base

The RTK Base consists of three essential components:
  • Antennas: The Yarbo features a dedicated antenna for receiving satellite signals, including LoRa and RTK anennas. 
  • RTK Cable: A cable responsible for communication and GPS data transfer within the RTK Base system.
  • LoRa Cable: Facilitates communication using Long Range Radio (LoRa) technology.

How to Set Up the RTK Base?

Step for setting up the RTK Base

Note: The RTK base is minimally affected by temperature fluctuations. However, it is crucial to avoid exposing it to water as it is not waterproof. It can only be used in the temperature range spans from -30°C to 60°C (-22°F to 140°F). Therefore, whether placed indoors or outdoors, please ensure that the RTK Base is used within the specified temperature range and is not exposed to water.
  1. Find a suitable location: Look for an open area with a clear view of the sky. Avoid placing the RTK Base Antenna near tall buildings, trees, or other obstructions that could block the GPS signals.
  2. Install the RTK Base antenna: Ensure that the RTK Base antenna is securely installed and positioned vertically. It should have a clear line of sight to the satellites.
  3. Connect the RTK Base: Connect the RTK Base to a stable power source. Make sure the power supply is uninterrupted to ensure continuous operation.
  4. Establish an internet connection: The default internet connection for the RTK Base is 4G mode, but we highly recommend connecting it to Wi-Fi through the app to avoid consuming cellular data. Configuring the base network with the app may take some time, so please be patient. If connecting to the Wi-Fi network in the app proves challenging, you can use the Yarbo Tool to resolve the issue.
  5. Check the RTK Base indicator: Once the RTK Base is powered on and connected, check the indicator light. Waiting at least one minute. A solid green light and flashing green light indicate that the RTK Base is functioning correctly.

The light indicators

  • Upon finishing the setting up of RTK Base, please check the indicator light to ensure if the RTK Base is functioning properly. 
  • If Yarbo cannot return to the docking station despite the RTK Base functioning properly, you should raise a ticket and contact customer service for further assistance. If the RTK Base itself is not functioning, you can go through the RTK checking process or seek additional help.
  • If the indicator is solid green, it means the RTK Base is normal and working correctly.
  • If the indicator is flashing green, it indicates there is no internet connection. You should connect to RTK Base's Wi-Fi network or 4G network. If you cannot connect the RTK Base to the Wi-Fi network, please use Yarbo Tool to switch a channel. However, the RTK can still receive satellite signal data through LoRa communication. This means that the RTK still works functionally. 
  • If the indicator is flashing red slowly, it means the antenna is in an unstable state and the RTK signal is weak. Please wait for 5 minutes to see if the LED turns green. If not, try relocating the antenna or contact us for support. 
  • If the indicator is solid red, it indicates that the RTK Base is abnormal and lacks an internet connection.
  • If the indicator is rapidly flashing red, it indicates there is no RTK signal, this is because of there is an issue with the antenna installation or cable connection. In such cases, you should check the antenna and ensure it is accurately installed and the cable is securely attached. 


How does the RTK Base work?

RTK Base Operation

The RTK Base functions as a reference point, providing real-time corrections and accurate GPS data to the Yarbo device through two key protocols: NTRIP, which relies on an internet connection, and LoRa, designed to operate without internet connectivity. This dual communication capability empowers the Yarbo device to enhance its positioning accuracy, achieving centimeter-level precision in various applications.
  1. NTRIP Communication: 
    1. This communication mode requires a constant internet connection from either the 4G or Wi-Fi network all the time for Yarbo rover and RTK Base. It is recommended to use Wi-Fi to avoid excessive cellular data usage. 
    2. RTK Base will receive GPS signal data from the satellites, and then transmit corrected signal data to the Yarbo device via the NTRIP protocol.
    3. Yarbo will utilize this corrected signal data to calculate its precise real-time position.
NTRIP: Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol (NTRIP) is a popular method for RTK Base network configuration. It involves connecting the RTK Base to an NTRIP caster or server that provides correction data over the internet. The RTK Base receives the correction data and uses it to enhance positioning accuracy. 

LoRa Communication:
  1. In situations where there is no internet connection available (neither 4G nor Wi-Fi) for both the RTK Base and Yarbo rover, the RTK antenna can still capture satellite signals containing GPS data. 
  2. This information is sent to the Yarbo device through Long Range Radio (LoRa) communication. However, since NTRIP cannot function without an internet connection, the precision of positioning is reduced. 


Communication Scenarios Between the RTK Base and the Yarbo Device

To ensure a consistent and reliable transmission of GPS signal data, two dual communication modes (4G and LoRa or Wi-Fi and LoRa) will operate simultaneously. This is to ensure that the transmission of GPS signal data remains uninterrupted, mitigating potential disruptions caused by both internet disconnection. The stability of Yarbo's Wi-Fi connection will be influenced by variables like the distance between the Yarbo device and the Wi-Fi router. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct the dual communication modes to ensure that the correction data can be emited to Yarbo device continuouly via Long Range Radio (LoRa) if the Wi-Fi internet connection has been disconnected or instable. 
  • LoRa + NTRIP 4G:
    • This mode offers a wide range with highly accurate RTK positioning.
    • Stability is maintained as long as the 4G connection remains stable.
  • LoRa + NTRIP Wi-Fi:
    • This configuration provides more accurate RTK positioning within a smaller range.
    • Stability is maintained up to a certain distance, with coverage extending up to 120m, depending on Wi-Fi capabilities. 
What will affect Wi-Fi capabilities? 
Wi-Fi performance can be influenced by physical obstructions like walls, doors, and furniture, causing interference. Materials such as concrete, metal, and plaster can notably diminish the range of Wi-Fi signals. A considerable distance between the Wi-Fi router and the Yarbo device may result in a weakened Wi-Fi connection.
  • LoRa without Internet (4G/Wi-Fi):
    • In scenarios where the RTK Base cannot connect to 4G or Wi-Fi, it directly receives raw satellite signal data through RTK.
    • Corrected signal data is then transmitted to the Yarbo device via LoRa communication.
  • NTRIP without LoRa:
    • This mode offers a wide range but is limited by an unstable network due to the instability of Wi-Fi. 
    • If the Wi-Fi connection has been disconnected, it will impact the RTK Base's ability to deliver accurate signal data to Yarbo devices. 
    •    

The Signal Flow and Connectivity between the RTK Base and the Yarbo device

  1. Initialization: When the RTK Base is powered on, it will initiate the connection process and begin searching for available networks. 
  2. Network connection: Once connected to either the 4G or Wi-Fi network, the RTK Base will start to establish communications with the satellite system.
  3. Satellite Signal Reception: The RTK Base receives raw signal data, commonly from GPS satellites. 
  4. Correction and NTRIP Protocol: 
    1. The RTK Base corrects the received satellite data to enhance accuracy.
    2. Utilizing the NTRIP protocol, the corrected data is then transmitted to the Yarbo device. To work in RTK via NTRIP, both RTK Base and Yarbo devices have to be connected to the internet network. 
  5. Yarbo Device Processing: The Yarbo device is equipped to receive and interpret the corrected data and calculate its precise real-time position.


The network configuration for the RTK Base

  Why does the RTK Base need to be connected to the internet(4G/Wi-Fi)?

  1. Remote monitoring and control: With an internet connection, the RTK Base can be remotely monitored and controlled. You can access the base station's status, settings, and performance through the Yarbo app, making it easier to manage and troubleshoot if necessary. 
  2. Real-time position updates: The internet connection allows the RTK Base to receive real-time updates, such as firmware upgrades or software patches. These updates can enhance the performance, stability, and functionality of the RTK Base.
  3. Network RTK: When connected to the internet, the RTK Base can engage in Network RTK services. This collaborative approach allows base stations to share correction data, extending coverage and enhancing accuracy over larger geographic areas.
  4. Correction data: The RTK Base receives correction data from reference stations or networks through the internet. This correction data is crucial for achieving high-precision positioning with the RTK system. It helps compensate for errors in the GPS signals and enhances the accuracy of the positioning solution.

  The modes of network configuration for the RTK Base

Wi-Fi Network Mode

We highly recommend connecting the RTK Base to the Wi-Fi network to prevent the consumption of cellular data on 4G.
Connect the Wi-Fi for the RTK Base from the Yarbo S1 Setting page
Step 1: Connect to Yarbo Base Hotspot
  1. Open your mobile device and ensure that the Wi-Fi feature is enabled.
  2. Access the Wi-Fi settings on your mobile device.
  3. In the Wi-Fi network list, locate and select the Yarbo Base you want to operate. The default hotspot name should be something like "Yarbo_base_XXXXXX". 
  4. For the initial connection, enter the default password (87654321).
  5. Wait for your mobile device to successfully connect to the Yarbo Base hotspot.
Step 2: Configure Yarbo Base and Connect to Wi-Fi Network
  1. Open the Yarbo app, select the desired Yarbo device, and click on the settings option. Scroll down and click on "Network" in the RTK Base Station section to access the device's Wi-Fi configuration page.
  2. In the Yarbo APP, select the Wi-Fi network you wish to connect to and enter the password.
  3. Ensure the entered Wi-Fi password is accurate, then click the confirm button.
  4. The Yarbo Base will attempt to connect to the specified Wi-Fi network. Please wait for a successful connection, which may take approximately 1-2 minutes. If needed, you should manually click the refresh button during this waiting period. 

4G Network Mode

  • Yarbo's RTK Base comes with built-in 4G capabilities, providing a versatile connectivity solution. The system is designed to connect to the internet using cellular networks, offering enhanced flexibility and mobility, especially in areas where Wi-Fi connectivity is unavailable.
  • In situations where the RTK Base faces challenges in connecting to a Wi-Fi network, it is designed to intelligently default to 4G mode. This feature ensures continuous operation, providing uninterrupted functionality even when Wi-Fi connectivity is compromised. 


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